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2010/1 Module Catalogue
Module Provider: Language & Translation Studies Short Name: TRAM054
Level: M Module Co-ordinator: BRAUN S Dr (Lang & Trans)
Number of credits: 15 Number of ECTS credits: 7.5
Module Availability
Semester 1
Assessment Pattern

Unit(s) of Assessment
Weighting Towards Module Mark (%)
One 4000 - 5000 word essay

Qualifying Condition(s):
An average mark of 50% must be achieved

Module Overview
Drawing on pragmatic models of communication, this module will help students to develop an understanding of how verbal language and other modes of communication are used for the creation and comprehension of meaning. Particular emphasis will be on the application of relevant communication models to the various forms of audiovisual translation.
First degree in English, an appropriate language or equivalent.
Module Aims
In this module students will be provided with a linguistic framework which will support them in making interpretive judgements in the processes of audiovisual translation.
Learning Outcomes
On successful completion of this module, students will be able to:
  • analyse speech as a component of audiovisual material in a systematic way;
  • demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between spoken and written language as the basis of transferring communications between different modes;
  • understand language-based communication in the context of multimodal communication;
  • make informed decisions about the production of audiovisual outputs (subtitles; audiodescriptions) based on knowledge of how language is processed in both written and spoken modes;
  • apply a systematic understanding of language use to the production of audiovisual outputs;
  • use their understanding of intercultural aspects of language-based communication in order to identify appropriate solutions in the audiovisual context;
  • use the knowledge acquired as a theoretical framework for the MA dissertation.
Module Content
The module will focus on the following topics and models of language and communication. Particular emphasis will be placed on their application to the various forms of Audiovisual Translation:
Language-based communication:
  • The origin of speakers and language variation (functional/regional/social and individual variation; register/dialect/sociolect/idiolect; standard vs. non-standard language);
  • Spoken vs. written language; characteristic features of spoken language; prosodic vs. graphic features; grammatical differences; lexical differences;
  • Current developments in English.
Conversation as the most basic form of language-based communication:
  • Structural aspects of conversation (the ethnomethodology of talk; adjacency pairs; interruption and overlaps; openings and closings, sequencing, silence; cross-cultural comparison);
  • Participant roles (symmetrical/asymmetrical role relationships; permanency/non-permanency; formal/informal).
Language-based communication in the context of multimodal communication and audiovisual translation:
  • Getting the message across (expressing and implying meaning)
  • The Co-operative Principle (observing conversational maxims; non-observance; flouting maxims; conversational implicature).
  • The Principle of Relevance (optimal relevance; explicatures and implicatures)
  • Indirectness (Speech Act Theory, Politeness Theory, 'face-saving'; cross-cultural comparison);
  • Humour, irony and metaphor (sources; models; cross-cultural comparison.
Methods of Teaching/Learning
The module will consist of a combination of lectures and tutorials. There is an opportunity for discussion during and at the end of lectures. Guidance on researching and writing essay assignments will be given in tutorials. 

The module will involve twenty four hours class contact over the semester.
Selected Texts/Journals
Essential reading
Language-based communication
Aitchison, J (20033). Words in the mind. An introduction to the Mental Lexicon. Oxford: Blackwell.
Trudgill, P (2000). Sociolinguistics. An introduction to language and society. London: Penguin.
Widdowson, H (2007). Discourse Analysis. Oxford: OUP.
Yule, G (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: OUP.
Yule, G (2001). The study of language. Oxford: OUP.
Translation and Audiovisual Translation
Díaz Cintas, J / Remael, A (2007). Audiovisual Translation: Subtitling. Manchester: St. Jerome.
Díaz Cintas, J (2003). Audiovisual Translation in the Third Millennium. In G. Anderman / M. Rogers. Translation today. Trends and perspectives. Clevedon, Multilingual Matters: 192-204.
Díaz Cintas, J / Orero, P / Remael, A (Eds). (2007). Media for all: subtitling for the deaf, audio description and sign language. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Chandler, D (2007²). The Basics of Semiotics. London: Routledge.
Kress, G / van Leeuwen, T (2001). Multimodal Discourse. London: Arnold.
Recommended reading
Language-based communication
Brown, G / Yule, G (1983). Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: CUP.
Grundy, P (2000²). Doing Pragmatics. Great Britain: Edward Arnold.
Mey, J (1993). Pragmatics. Oxford: Blackwell.
Halliday, M (1985). Spoken and written language. Victoria: Deakin University Press.
Levinson, S (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tannen, D (Ed) (1983). Spoken and written language: Exploring orality and literacy. Norwood, N.J.: Ablex.
Tannen, D (1984). Conversational style: Analyzing talk among friends. Norwood: NJ Ablex.
Translation and Audiovisual Translation
Gambier, Y (2006). Orientations de la recherche en traduction audiovisuelle. Target 18:2, 261-293.
Gambier, Y / Gottlieb, H (Ed) (2001). (Multi). Media translation. Concepts, practices and research. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Hatim B / Mason J (1990). Discourse and the translator. London: Longman.
Hatim, B / Mason, I (1997). The Translator as communicator. London: Routledge.
Orero, P (Ed) (2004). Topics in Audiovisual Translation. Benjamins, Amsterdam.
Remael, A / Neves, J (2007). Audiovisual Translation as a tool for social integration. Linguistica Antverpiensia NS 6.
Snell-Hornby, M (1997). Written to be spoken: The audio-medial text in translation. In A. Trosborg (Ed), Text Typology and Translation. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 277-290.
 Relevant special issues of journals
Gambier, Y (Ed) (2003). Screen Translation. The Translator 9(2).
Vandale, J (Ed). (2002). Translating Humour. The Translator 8(2).
Delabastita D (Ed) (1996). Wordplay in Translation. The Translator 2(2).
Audiovisual Translation, Meta 49(1), 2004.
Humour and Translation, Meta 34(1), 1989.
Audiovisual Translation, JosTrans 6, 2006.
Audiovisual Translation, JosTrans 4, 2005.
Background reading
Language-based communication
Crystal, D (2003²). The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of the English Language. Cambridge: CUP.
Graddol, D (1987). Describing language. Milton Keynes: Open University Press
Translation and Audiovisual Translation
Anderman, G / Rogers, M (Eds) (1996). Words, words, words – The translator and the language learner. Cleveland: Multilingual Matters.
Anderman, G / Rogers, M (Eds) (1999). Word, text, translation. Cleveland: Multilingual Matters.
Baker, M (1992). In Other Words. Textbook on translation. London: Routledge.
Baker, M / Malmkjær K (Eds) (1997). Encyclopaedia of Translation Studies. London: Routledge.
Bogucki, L (2004). A relevance framework for constraints on cinema subtitling. Lodz: Wydawnicto Uniwersytetu.
Chaume, F (2004). Film Studies and Translation Studies: Two disciplines at stake in Audiovisual Translation. Meta 49:1, 12-24.
Eco, U (2003). Mouse or rat? Translation as negotiation. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Gambier, Y (2004). La traduction audiovisuelle: un genre en expansion. Meta 49:1, 1-11.
Hatim, B / Munday, J (2004). Translation. An advanced resource book. London: Routledge.
Jiménez Hurtado, C (2007). Traducción y accesibilidad: Subtitulación para sordos y audiodescripción para ciegos: nuevas modalidades de Traducción Audiovisual. Frankfurt: Lang.
Karamitroglou, F (2000). Towards a methodology for the investigation of norms in audiovisual translation: the choice between subtitling and revoicing in Greece. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Leppihalme, R (1997). Culture Bumps. An Empirical Approach to the Translation of Allusions. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Newmark, P (1988). Approaches to translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Newmark, P (1991). A Textbook of translation. London: Prentice Hall.
Nord, C (1997). Translating as a purposeful activity. Manchester: St Jerome.
Snell-Hornby, M (1988). Translation Studies – an integrated approach. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Snell-Hornby, M (2006). The turns of translation studies: new paradigms or shifting viewpoints? Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Venuti, L (Ed) (2000). The Translation Studies Reader. London: Routledge.
Ventola, E / Charles, C / Kaltenbacher, M (Eds) (2004). Perspectives on multimodality. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Relevant journals
META (print edition in library, online access to older issues through
The Translator (print edition in library).
Target (online access through library).
JosTrans - Journal of Specialist Translation (online journal:
Perspectives: studies in Translatology (online access through library).
Linguistica Antverpiensia (print edition through library).

Proceedings of the Mutra Multidimensional Translation Conference series 2005-2007
Benjamins Translation Studies Bibliography Online
St Jerome's Translation Studies Abstracts & Bibliography of Translation Studies Online
Last Updated

10 August 2009