X-rays, γ-rays, MTF and ROC Analysis
Mathematical formulation of the imaging system; linear operator, principle of superposition, impulse response function, stationarity, line spread function, edge spread function, convolution integral, MTF. Usefulness of MTF, modulation input and output, test objects, measure of performance, cascade MTFs. Perception of detail, visual acuity, resolution criteria. Existence of observer, decision criteria, confidence thresholds, conditional probabilities, types of decision. Construction of the ROC curve and principle of ROC analysis.
X-ray Imaging and analysis
The X-ray tube construction and operational needs.
X-ray scatter in diagnostic imaging and scatter reduction methods.
X-ray film, intensifying screens and film-screen imaging performance.
Non-film imaging: Image intensifiers and video X-ray images. Digital Subtraction Angiography. The production and use of digital medical X-ray images. Photostimulable phosphors and direct digital X-ray detectors.
Introduction to quality management systems. The quality assurance or life cycle of x-ray equipment. The role of the physicist, radiographer and engineer. Types of x-ray equipment. Radiation safety and performance measurements on diagnostic and fluoroscopic equipment. Test equipment for the physicist. Published protocols. Measurement and significance of patient dose. Radiation safety design of x-ray rooms. Optimisation of patient exposure.
The NHS Breast Screening Programme - organisation, facts and figures. Risk/benefit analysis in mammography. The profile of quality assurance and the role of the physicist. Elements of the mammographic imaging system: dedicated X-ray sets, films, intensifying screens and film processing systems. Use of various anode and filter materials to tailor the X-ray spectrum to individual patients. Effects of film processing on image quality and patient dose. Stereotactic biopsy systems and special procedures. Introduction to digital imaging modalities and their applications in mammography.
Nuclear Medicine Instrumentation
Introduction to nuclear medicine (1h)
Radioactive sample counting applications in medicine (1h)
The gamma camera: components and basics of operation (1h)
The gamma camera: signal processing and corrections (1h)
The gamma camera: applications and quality control (1h)
SPECT: image reconstruction, attenuation & scatter correction (1h)
Hospital visit and laboratory practical (4h)
PET: basic principals and instrumentation (1h)
PET: applications and quality control (1h)
Introduction to radiotherapy and treatment planning (2h)
Ionisation chambers and applications (2h)
Electronic Portal Imaging Devices and
Cone Beam CT
Detectors for patient dosimetry: TLDs, diodes (1h)