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2010/1 Module Catalogue
 Module Code: PHYM011 Module Title: HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE
Module Provider: Physics Short Name: PHM-HOS
Level: M Module Co-ordinator: BRADLEY DA Prof (Physics)
Number of credits: 15 Number of ECTS credits: 7.5
Module Availability

Autumn Semester


Assessment Pattern

Unit(s) of Assessment


Weighting Towards Module Mark (%)


Coursework and hospital experience assessment


100 %


Part-time Students:


At least equivalent to that for full time students


Qualifying Condition(s) 


The first six components of this module are not assessed. The experience gained in these visits and demonstrations is intended to provide an enriching experience, the value of which  feeds into the quality of the students’ ‘two week placement report’ for full time students and the report that replaces this for part 1 IPEM trainees. The report is to be delivered by the end of week 13 of the Spring Semester and is assessed in combination with the Hospital Supervisor’s evaluation of student involvement in the learning opportunity. The report attracts a full mark equivalent to 50% of the total marks available while the supervisor’s report provides the remaining 50% of the total marks available.

Module Overview
Hospital experience and placements, the latter being equivalent to 2 weeks, are arranged for all non Health Service students. The hospital experience and placements are arranged to give students a broad overview of medical physics in the Health Service and cover the main areas of radiotherapy, nuclear medicine, diagnostic radiography and clinical measurements.  The placements are arranged by staff carrying out their normal duties; students should be sensitive to all situations and if required be prepared to withdraw for an appropriate length of time at short notice. In addition students will be expected to dress appropriately when on hospital premises. For Health Service students the hospital acquaintanceships will be taken to provide the full range of insight into practical hospital physics.


Module Aims
To address the important aspect of management, both of scientific and routine services. Provide an appreciation of the wide range of ionising radiation sources encountered by medical physicists and their application in the clinical setting. Provide an overview of a range of medical physics applications in clinical practice, including practical experience in some radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine related techniques and non-ionising sources. To experience how the theory of science and technology is applied in practice, appreciating also the procedures in place and in practice for ensuring the safety of staff, patients and hospital visitors.  
Learning Outcomes

After completing this module, the student should be able to:


Module Specific Skills:


  • have an awareness of the many facets of safety and management so that they can work safely and appropriately in both the hospital environment and other large organisations involved with applications of science;


  • understand some of the practical aspects of the application of science and technology in a hospital.



Discipline Specific Skills:


  • have practical experience and understanding of how nuclear medicine techniques work in the laboratory and clinical setting;


  • have practical experience and understanding of how imaging techniques work in the clinical setting;


·         have practical experience and understanding of radiotherapy techniques ;


·         have an appreciation of the management of a medical physics department.



Personal and Key Skills:


·         confidence in presenting, in a short period of time, scientific material which they have researched and to respond to questions that may arise during presentations;


development of professional awareness.
Module Content











Dr AD Hall








Miss S Aldridge










Mr M Pryor








Miss S Aldridge









Dr AD Hall





Prof DK Nassiri








Hospital Supervisor


November Visit to Royal Marsden Hospital


Eight hours of practical work in the laboratory covering whole body counting, gamma camera imaging, in-vitro assay, radiopharmaceutical production, radiopharmaceutical QC.


1 hour demonstration of computer applications in MRI, multimodality imaging, radiotherapy planning



Use of Sources of Radiation


Sources of ionising radiation seen and discussed include:-


In radiotherapy:  linear accelerators, X-ray therapy unit, simulators, HDR unit, sealed sources, and a diagnostic x-ray unit.  In nuclear medicine:  sealed sources for a variety of uses; flood sources, point marker sources and calibration sources.  In radiopharmacy:  Technetium generators in a Clean Room environment.



X-ray CT


Guided tour of clinical CT installation.  Demonstration of capabilities of system, functions and features. Demonstration of scan techniques with the use of phantoms and choice of scan factors.  Rôle of the physicist in CT and routine quality assurance.



Treatment Planning Demonstrations


Clinical physicists will demonstrate how a treatment planning computer is used, looking at single beams, parallel pair, three field treatments, CT data, shielding, BEV’s and DVH’s.  Students will be shown an extensive range of outlining, immobilization and treament devices.




Royal Marsden Hospital Demonstrations and Experiments





St George’s Hospital Visit


A visit to working departments in a teaching hospital:  Ultrasound Laboratory, ultrasound lecture, latest clinical ultrasound techniques, Imaging and Doppler technology (3-D and 4-D ultrasound)




Two week placement





















































Methods of Teaching/Learning
The individual components of the module are led/supervised by senior members of the various Hospital Medical Physics Departments involved. The learning is experiential.
Selected Texts/Journals

Selected Texts/Journals


Each lead person recommends his/her own set of reference material. The current list is as follows:


Supplementary References


The Ionising Radiations Regulations (1999) SI 3232


Work with Ionising Radiation. Approved Code of Practice, HSE, 2000


The Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 No.1059


Medical and Dental Guidance Notes. P. Allisy-Roberts IPEM, 2002


Radioactive Substances Act 1993,


ARSAC Licence Regulations


Radiation Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers & Students. Ed. Podgorsak, IAEA, 2005


Lessons Learned from Accidental Exposures in Radiotherapy, IAEA Safety Report Series No 17, IAEA ( Vienna ), 2000


Applying Radiation Safety Standards in Radiotherapy, IAEA Safety Report Series No 38, IAEA ( Vienna ), 2006


The Physics of Medical Imaging, Ed S Webb, IoPP, 2002


Medical CT & Ultrasound: Current Technology & Applications, Goldman & Fowlkes


AAPM, 1995


Computed Tomography, WA Kalendar, Publ MCD Varlag, 2000.


Basic Science of Nuclear Medicine, 2nd Ed., Parker, Smith, Taylor , Churchill Livingstone, 1984


Practical Nuclear Medicine, 2nd Edn, PF Sharp, HG Gemmell, FW Smith, OUP, 1998


IEC 60601-1, Medical Electrical Equipment—Part 1: General Requirements for Safety and Essential Performance, International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva , 1995.


IEC 60601-1-2, "Medical Electrical Equipment, Part 1: General Requirements for Safety. 2. Collateral Standard: Electromagnetic Compatibility, Requirements and Test," IEC, Geneva , April 1993.


ISO 13485 ‘Quality Management’; ISO 14971 ‘Risk Management’; ISO 60601-1-4 ‘Software’;


ISO 60601-1 ‘Medical Safety’; ISO 60601-1 ‘Lab Equipment Safety’; ISO 60601-1 ‘Lab Equipment EMC (Emissions, Measurement, Control)’; ISO 61010-2-101 ‘IVD Safety’


Medical laser safety in the United Kingdom, R. J. Parsons, Lasers in Medical Science, 4, 177-179, (1989)


Ultraviolet & Blue-light Phototherapy: Principles, Sources, Dosimetry & Safety. Diffey & Hart, IPEM, 1997


Medical CT and Ultrasound 'Current Technology and Applications'


AAPM Summer School June 95, Editors:  Goldman LW and Fowlkes, JB


Advanced Medical Publishing 1995


Computed Tomography, Willi A. Kalendar, Publicis MCD Varlag, 2000.


Last Updated
19 August 2008