This course investigates further the topics of magnetism and electromagnetic waves.
Diamagnets, Paramagnets, Ferromagnetics, Magnetisation M, Magnetisation current, Magnetic intensity H, Magnetic permeability, Magnetic susceptibility, Magnetic circuits, Reluctance, Hysteresis, Permanent magnets, Boundary conditions for B and H.
Displacement current, fourth Maxwell equation, review of vector analysis, Electromagnetic Waves, Speed, Refractive index, Attenuation, Skin depth, Uniform Plane waves, Linear Polarisation, Energy density and Power of Waves, Waves at Boundaries - reflection & refraction.
Fresnel's equations, Brewster angle, Total Internal reflection.
A more sophisticated treatment of classical mechanics including the concept of generalised co-ordinates and introducing the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations.
Introduction and Review: Newton's Laws, motion of a system of N particles, conservation laws, energy, the Minimum Energy Principle, constraints, degrees of freedom, the Principle of Virtual work and D’Alembert’s Principle (with applications to simple systems).
Lagrangian Formulation and Applications: Generalised coordinates, velocities and forces leading to the derivation of Lagrange’s equation. Application of the Lagrangian method to the projectile, simple pendulum, motion under the action of central forces, and motion in a rotating frame of reference (Coriolis and centrifugal forces).
Hamiltonian Formulation: Generalised momenta, derivation of
’s equations. Application to the simple pendulum and central forces leading to a discussion of orbits.
Radiation Detection and Measurement:
· Types of Radiation: general characteristics of alphas, betas, gamma- and X-rays, and neutrons. Typical radioactive sources and methods of production. Energy units (keV, MeV) and Q-values.
· Interactions of Radiation with Matter: Definitions of suitable units: activity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent. Interactions with matter of heavy charged particles, electrons, photons and neutrons. Selection of suitable shielding materials.
· Radiation Detector Properties and Measurements: covering the basic mechanisms of charge generation and transport in detectors, pulse processing using typical readout electronics, energy resolution and contributions to detector noise.
· An overview of types of Radiation Detector:
i. Gas Detectors: Ionisation processes, drift velocity and mobility. Ionisation chambers, Avalanche.Proportional counters and Geiger-Muller Tubes.
ii. Scintillation Detectors: principles of the Photo-Multiplier tube, Organic scintillators (liquid, plastic) and Inorganic scintillators (NaI(Tl), BGO).
- Semiconductor Detectors: Introduction to semiconductor properties: the band gap, reverse-biased junction and depletion regions. X-ray spectroscopy with planar Si detectors with Si(Li) and Ge detectors, Alpha particle spectroscopy with planar Si detectors. New high-Z semiconductors (GaAs, CdZnTe) for X-ray detection.
Galaxies and Large Scale Structures:
This component is an introduction to the physics of galaxies and large scale structures in the Universe. The observational evidence will be reviewed.
The Milky Way
- The nature of galaxies
- Evidence for dark matter
- Galactic evolution
- Galaxy clusters
- Larger scale structures
- The Great Attractor
- Active Galaxies
You will perform a selection of five general physics experiments of two sessions each. You will produce 10 lab diary entries, a full report on one experiment, and make an oral presentation on one experiment. You will receive detailed marking and feedback on how to improve the usefulness of these, to yourself and others. Typical experiments include: Optical fibres, Vibration interferometry, Chaos, Chromatic resolving power of a spectrometer, Laser speckle, optical image processing, supernova burst decay, etc.