Principles of Physics:
- Space, Time and Mass (3 hours)
SI units, multiples and submultiples of units, the units of length, mass and time, c, as a standard speed, dimensions in equations of physics. Derived units for important physical quantities, orders of magnitude, estimation and significant figures.
- Representation of Physical Quantities (4 hours)
Physical quantities represented as scalars and vectors, simple operations involving vector quantities, position as a vector quantity, components, magnitudes and units, rate of change of position and velocity.
- The Usefulness of the Vector Representation (4 hours)
The scalar and vector product, the right-hand rule, examples of the use of the vector product, description as a 3x3 determinant and the scalar triple product as the volume of a solid.
- General Kinematics (4 hours)
Position, velocity and acceleration, motion with constant acceleration, graphical representation and dealing with infinitesimal changes.
- General Dynamics (5 hours)
's Laws, force and momentum, principle of superposition of forces, frictional forces and the four fundamental forces in nature.
- Conservation Laws (9 hours)
Conservative forces, work done, potential and kinetic energy, the electron volt as a unit of energy, conservation of mechanical energy, conservation of momentum, conservation of energy, application to systems of particles, centre-of-mass and centre-of-mass velocity, conservation in 2-body collisions, mass and energy, E = mc2.
- Rotational Motion (7 hours)
Uniform circular motion, angular and centripetal acceleration, rotation of a solid about a fixed axis, moment of inertia, angular momentum and torque, conservation of angular momentum and the behaviour of the gyroscope.
Waves in Physics:
The course follows the text, Fundamentals of Physics Extended by Halliday, Resnick and Walker (HRW)
Wave Concepts (HRW Ch 15 and 16) (12 hours)
· Simple harmonic motion
· Longitudinal and transverse wave motion
· Frequency, angular frequency, wavelength, wave number, "speed"
· The wave equation in one dimension
· Superposition, beating, phase, group, particle velocities
· Energy and momentum
Mechanical Waves (HRW Ch 16 and 17) 6 hours
· Waves on a string, string boundaries and joins, standing waves.
· Sound waves, Doppler effect
Waves in Optics (HRW Ch 33, 34, 35 and 36) 15 hours
· Huygens construction
· Reflection, refraction, diffraction, refractive index
· Geometrical optics, lens formulae, magnification, telescope, microscope
· Optical fibres
· Fabry Perot interferometer
· Diffraction - single, double slit and grating diffraction
· Resolving power
Waves in Crystals (HRW Ch 36 and RO Ch 2) 3 hours
· Braggs' law, diffraction patterns, X-ray
structure, introduction to the reciprocal lattice
· Review of the course bringing out the unifying themes.
· Recapitulation and Summary 1 hour demonstrations
General discussion; Linkages; Problems, Worked examples and Quizzes 5 hours
Atoms Molecules and Quanta:
· Introduction 2 hours
The need for quantum theory, outline of course.
· Quanta of light 5 hours
Electromagnetic waves and light, blackbody radiation, photoelectric effect, Compton effect.
· Wave-particle duality 3 hours
De Broglie hypothesis, Born interpretation, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
· Quantum mechanics 6 hours
Arguments leading to the Schrödinger equation, solution for a free particle, wave functions, solution for a particle in a box, implications for energy quantization.
· Quantum structure of atoms 8 hours
Atomic spectra, Franck-Hertz experiment, spectral lines for hydrogen, Bohr model, hydrogen atom in quantum mechanics, electron spin (Stern-Gerlach experiment), Zeeman effect.
· Multi-electron atoms 10 hours
Pauli exclusion principle, shell structure, low levels of alkali atoms, characteristic x-rays, optical spectra, addition (coupling) of angular momentum, helium spectrum.
· Molecules 2 hours