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2010/1 Module Catalogue
Module Provider: School of Law Short Name: LAWM071
Level: M Module Co-ordinator: CARR I Prof (Schl of Law)
Number of credits: 30 Number of ECTS credits: 15
Module Availability

2nd Semester


Assessment Pattern

Unit(s) of Assessment


Weighting towards Module Mark (%)










Module Overview

Since the mid 1990s corruption has emerged as an important topic on the international law of development.  Corruption in different contexts, business, politics and public sector, is seen as a major inhibiting factor affecting economic growth development.  As a result key institutions involved with the development agenda, the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and donor agencies such as USAID, ’s DFID and others have got involved with the issue of combating corruption.  They have all adopted various strategies, especially public sector reform through the adoption of a model driven by the Weberian theory of public administration.  Alongside these developments we have seen active adoption of nine anti-corruption conventions at the regional and international level.  The module will critically examine the many strategies recommended and adopted by developing countries and gauge their impact by studying countries such as Tanzania and Kenya who have long been major recipients of donor funds.  The module will also place the debate surrounding reform in developing the wider context of neo-colonial studies.





Module Aims

This module aims to provide students with a critical and advanced understanding of the impact of corruption on development and how the international community including donor agencies have tried to address the issue of corruption through various measures ranging from regulation and public sector reform to civil society engagement.  An important part of this module will be the use of case studies of developing countries in Africa and Asia to  understand the issues and the success of the reform measures undertaken.


Learning Outcomes

Knowledge and Understanding


At the end of the course students should:


·             Be able to discuss and analyse concepts such as bribe, embezzlement, illicit enrichment, conditionalities found in development and corruption discourse


·             Have a good understanding of the nature and extent of corruption


·             Be able to critically evaluate the Weberian rational-legal model that has influenced much of the thinking surrounding the fight against corruption


·             Be able to critically analyse the key legislative provisions guiding anti-corruption measures


·             Be able to assess the historical and political background of public reforms


·             Be able to examine the role of donor agencies and civil society within the legal and public reform process





At the end of the course students should have furthered their command of the following skills, so you have the ability to:


·              Carry out research on a legal topic (with an interdisciplinary flavour) and use a variety of electronic and paper sources


·             Evaluate the methodological and ideological credence of those sources


·             Critically evaluate law, policy and Western-centric approaches to development


·             Appraise the impact of reforms


·             Construct a principled argument and to critically evaluate the arguments of others


·             Develop independence in thought and argument and the confidence to question their own views


·             Design proposals for new policy and law and to assess the practical impact of such proposals


Module Content

·             What is Corruption?


·             Emergence as a Development Issue


·             Contribution of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the Donor Agencies to the Fight Against Corruption


·             International and Regional Anti-Corruption Conventions


·             Assessment of Conditionality as a Tool


·             Post-Conditionality


·             Case Studies – and


Methods of Teaching/Learning

8 x 3-hour seminars.  The seminars will be interactive and students will be expected to come prepared for the seminar and engage actively in discussions


Selected Texts/Journals

Essential reading


Rose-Ackerman, Susan Corruption and Government (CUP, 1999)


Mbaku, John Mukum Corruption in Africa ( Lexington Books, 2007)



Background reading


Ackerman, J. ‘State-Society Synergy for Accountability: Beyond “Exit” and “Voice”’ World Development (32 (3): 447-463)


Alatas, Syed Hussein Corruption: Its Nature, Causes and Functions (Aldershot: Brookfield, 1990)


Alldridge, P. Money Laundering Law: Forfeiture, Confiscation, Civil Recovery, Criminal Laundering and Taxation of the Proceeds of Crime ( London : Hart Publishing, 2003)


Anderson, C. J. & Tverdova, Y. V. ‚Corruption, Political Allegiances and Attitudes Towards Government in Contemporary Democracies ‘American Journal of Political Science (47 (1): 91-109)


Anti-Corruption Bureau and the Presidential Inquiry Commission Against Corruption The National Integrity System in Parliamentarians Workshop Corruption Survey ( Dar es Salaam : CIET International)


Apnac Chapter Status of Media Fighting Against Corruption.  Available from


Baaz, M. E. The Paternalism of Partnership: A Postcolonial Reading of Identity in Development ( London : Zed Books, 2005)


Bagenda, P. M. with Goredama, C. (Ed) ‘Combating Money Laundering in the SADC Sub-Region: The Case of ’ Profiling Money Laundering in Eastern & Southern Africa (Monograph No. 90, Cape Town : ISS).  Also available at


Bardhan, P. ‘Corruption and Development: A Review of Issues’ Journal of Economic Literature (XXXV: 1320-1346)


Barratt, M & Van de Walle, N. Democratic Experiments in Africa 1997 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997)


Bayart, J-F. The State in Africa : The Politics of the Belly (London: Longman, 1993)


Behn, R. D. Thinking Democratic Accountability ( Washington DC : Brookings Institutions, 2001)


Berg, E. J. Rethinking Technical Co-operation, Reforms for Capacity Building in Africa (New York: UNDP, 1993)


Bergsten, C. F. & Elliott, K. A. (Eds) Corruption in the World Economy (Washington DC: Institute for International Economics, 1997)


Bigsten, A., Mutalemwa, D., Tsikata, Y. & Wangwa, S. Aid and Reform in (Washington DC: World Bank, 1999)


Bossier, G. Tacitus and Other Roman Studies (Hutchison (Trans) New York: Putnam’s, 1906)


Brown, E. & Cloke, J. ‘Neoliberal Reform, Governance and Corruption in the South: Assessing the International Anti-Corruption Crusade’ Antipode (36 (2): 272-294)


Campbell, W. J. with Martin, S. E. & Copeland, D. A. (Eds) ‘African Cultures and Newspapers’ in The Function of Newspapers in Society: A Global Perspective ( Westport , Conneticut: Praeger, 2003)


Carney, G. ‘Conflict of Interest: Legislators, Ministers and Public Officials’ TI Working Papers (Berlin: Transparency International, 1998)


Carr, I. ‘The United Nations Convention on Corruption: Improving the Quality of Life of Millions in the World?’ Manchester Journal of International Economic Law (3 (3), 3-44)


Chang, E. C. C. & Chu , Y-H ‘Corruption and Trust: Exceptionalism in Asian Democracies?’ The Journal of Politics (68 (2): 259-271)


CIET International : Corruption in the Police, Judiciary, Revenue and Land Services (Dar es Salaam: CIET International, 1996)


CIET International The Ntioanl Integrity System Workshop in , Parliamentarians Workshop Corruption Survey, Dodoma, , August 10 1996 (Dar es Salaam: CIET International, 1996)


Clarke, G. R. G. & Xu, L. Ownership, Competition and Corruption: Bribe Takers versus Bribe Payers ( Washington DC : World Bank, 2002)


Collier, P. & Hoeffler, A. ‘Aid, Policy and Growth in Post-Conflict Countries’ European Economic Review (48 (5): 1125-45)


Collier, P. with Lele, U. & Nabi, I. (Eds) ‘Aid and Economic Performance in ’ in Transtitions in Development Aid Organisations and the Effectiveness of Aid (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991)


Dagdeviren, H. ‘Waiting for Miracles: The Commercialisation of Urban Water Services in Development and Change (39 (1), 101-121)


Dalgaard, C-J., Hasen, H. & Tarp, F. ‘On the Empirics of Foreign Aid and Growth’ The Economic Journal (114: F191-F216)


De Maria, W. ‘The New War on African “Corruption”: Just Another Neo-Colonial Adventure’.  (Paper presented at the 4th International Critical Management Studies Conference, Cambridge University , 4-7th July 2005, p.5)


Dobel, J. P. ‘The Corruption of State’ American Political Science Review (72 (3): 958-973, 1978)


Duckett, J. ‘Bureaucrats in Business, Chinese Style: The Lessons of Market Reform and State Entrepreneurialism in the People’s Republic of World Development (29: 23-37, 2001)


Eisenstadt, S. N. Traditional Patrimonialism and Modern Neopatrimonialism (London: Sage, 1973)


Ersf, & Faceit The State of Corruption in Annual Report 2002.  Available at (2002)


Falck, H. Aid and Economic Performance: The Case of (Lund: Department of Economics, University of Lund, 1997)


Fatton, R. Predatory Rule: State and Civil Society in Africa (Boulder: Lynne Rienner Press, 1992)


Fine, B. Lapavitsas, C. & Pincus, J. (Eds) Development Policy in the Twenty-First Century: Beyond the Post-Washington Consensus ( London : Routledge, 2001)


Fisman, R. J. & Gatti, R. ‘Decentralization and Corruption: Evidence Across Countries’ Journal of Public Economics (83: 325-45, 2002)


Gantz, D. A. ‘Globalizing Sanctions Against Foreign Bribery: The Emergence of an International Legal Consensus’ North Western Journal of International Law and Business (18:457, 1998)


Gay, O., White, I. & Kelly, R. The Funding of Political Parties. (Research paper 07/34, House of Commons Library.) Available at


Gilmore, W. C. Dirty Money: The Evolution of International Measures to Counter Money Laundering and the Financing of Terrorism (Strasbourg: Council of Europe , 2004)


Gould, D. & Mukendi, T. B. ‘Bureaucratic Corruption in Africa : Causes, Consequences and Remedies’ International Journal of Public Administration (12: 427-57, 1989)


Hall, D. ‘Privatisation, Multinationals and Corruption’ Development of Practice (9 (5): 539-556, 1999)


Harrison, G. ‘Post-Conditionality Politics and Administrative Reform: Reflection on the Cases of and Development and Change (32: 657-679, 2001)


Hauk, E. & Saez-Marti, M. ‘On the Change Transition of Corruption’ Journal of Economic Theory (107 (2): 311-355, 2002)


Heilman, B., Kamata, N & Ndumbaro, L. ‘Corruption, Politics and Societal Values in Journal of Social Philosophy (31 (4): 497-506, 2000)


Helleiner, G. K., Killick, T, Lipumba, N. L., Ndulu, B. J. & Svendsen, K. E. Report of the Group of Independent Advisors on Development Cooperation Issues Between Tanzania and its Aid Donors (Copenhagen: Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1995)


Holmes, L. Rotten States: Corruption, Post-Communism and Neoliberalism (NC: Duke University Press, 2006)


Human Rights Watch, World Report: (2002).  Available at


Huther, J. & Shah, A. Anti-Corruption Policies and Programs: A Framework for Evaluation ( Washington DC : World Bank, 2001)


Kamau, J. ‘What Can’t the IMF Do?’ New African (March issue, 2001).  Also available at


Kiley, S. ‘Donors Freeze Aid Over Tanzanian Tax Fraud Claims’ The Times (November 25th 1994)


Klitguard, R. E. Controlling Corruption (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988)


Kunicova, J. & Rose-Ackerman, S. ‘Electoral Rules as Constraints on Corruption’ British Journal of Political Science (35 (4): 573-606, 2005)


Kututwa, N. African Anti-Corruption Commitments: A Review of Eight NEPAD Countries (African Human Security Initiative, 2005)


Lederman, D., Loayza, M. & Soares, R. ‘Accountability and Corruption: Political Institutions Matter’ World Bank Working Paper No. 2708 ( Washington DC : World Bank, 2001)


Leys, C. ‘What is the Problem About Corruption?’ The Journal of Modern African Studies (3 (2): 215-30 at 226-7, 1965)


Machiavelli N. with Gilbert, A. (Ed & Trs) Machiavelli: The Chief Works & Others Vol.2 (Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press: 561-725, 1965)


Mans, D. with Husain, I. & Faruquee, T. (Eds) ‘: Resolute Action’ Adjustment on Africa : Lessons from Country Case Studies (Washington DC: World Bank, 1994)


Marquette, H. ‘Corruption Eruption: Development and the International Community’ Third World Community (20 (6): 1215-1220, 1999)


Mbaku, J. M. ‘Africa After More than Thirty Years of Independence: Still Poor and Deprived’ Journal of Third World Studies (11: 13, 1994)


McAuslan, P. with Faundez, J. (Ed) ‘Law, Governance and the Development of the Market’  in Good Government and Law: Legal and Institutional Reform in Developing Countries (London: Macmillan, 1997)


Mukandala, R. with Hyden, G. & Mukandala, R. (Eds) ‘From Proud Defiance to Beggery: A Recipients Tale’ in Agencies in Foreign Aid: Comparing , and the in (London: Macmillan, 1999)


Mulengi, M. M. & Lesetedi, G. N. ‘Interrogating our Past: Colonialism and the Birth and Entrenchment of Corruption in Sub-Saharan AfricaAfrican Journal of Political Science (3 (2): 15-28, 1998)


Mulgan, R. ‘Accountability: An Ever-Expanding Concept?’ Public Administration (78 (3): 555-573, 2000)


Muna, A. ‘The African Union Convention on Corruption’ in Transparency International’s Global, Regional and Country Reports ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2004).  Also available from


Mutahaba, G. ‘Pay Reform and Corruption in ’s Public Service’.  Paper presented at the Seminar on Potential for Public Service Pay Reform to Eradicate Corruption Among Civil Servants in Tanzania ( Dar es Salaam , 26 May 2005)


Nabudere, D. W. Imperialism in East Africa : Imperialism and Exploitation (London: Zed Press, 1981)


Naim, M. ‘The Corruption Eruption’ The Brown Journal of World Affairs (2 (2): 245-261, 1995)


News item, ‘International Development Hails Tanzania’s Excellent Progress, Unveils Budget Support’ (16th January 2007). Available at


News item, ‘Swiss Government Praises TZ [ ] on Anti-Corruption War’ (IPP Media, 12th May 2007)


News item, ‘ Africa at Large: Civil Society Gains Strength at AU’ (11th September 2008).  Available at


Nkrumah, K. Class Struggle in Africa (London: Panaf Books, 1980)


North, D. C. & Thomas, R. P. Rise of the Western World: A New Economic History (Cambridge: CUP, 1996)


Obulutsa, G. ‘ Cuts Aid over Graft Law Delay’ (Reuters, 19th December 2006)


Ofusu-Amah, W., Paatii, Soopramanien, R. & Uprety, K. Combating Corruption (Washington DC: World Bank, 1999)


Olleta, A. The World Bank’s Influence on Water Privatisation in (IELRC Working Paper 2007-02,, Geneva : International Environmental Law Research Centre, 2007)


Osaba, S. O. ‘Corruption in : Historical Perspectives’ Review of African Political Economy (69: 371-386, 1996)


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Persson, T. Roland, G. & Tabellini, G. ‘Separation of Powers and Political Accountability’ Quarterly Journal of Economics (112: 1163-1202, 1997)


Quah, J. S. T. ‘Combating Corruption in : What Can Be Learned?’ Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management (9 (1): 29-35, 2001)


Raikes, P. & Gibbon, P. with Engeberg-Pedersen, P., Gibbon, P. & Raikes, P. (Eds) ‘Tanzania’ in Limits of Adjustment in Africa (London: James Currey, 1996)


Repoa ‘Combating Corruption in : Perception and Experience’ Afrobarometer Briefing Paper No. 33.  Available at


Robinson, M. ‘ Corruption and Development: An Introduction’ in Corruption and Development (London: Frank Cass, 1998)


Rodney, W. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (London: Bogle-L’Ouverture Publication, 1972)


Rodney, W. with Kaniki, M. H. (Ed) ’The Political Economy of Colonial ’ in Under Colonial Rule (London: Longman, 1980)


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Rose-Ackerman, S. Corruption: A Study of Political Economy (New York: Academic Press, 1978)


Schelder, A., Diamond, L. & Plattner, M. (Eds) The Self Restraining State: Power and Accountability in New Democracies (Bould: Lynne Reinner, 1999)


Scott, J. C. Seeing Like a State (Yale: Yale University Press, 1998)


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Williams, R. with Williams, R (Ed) ‘Introduction‘ in Explaining Corruption ( Cheltenham : Edward Elgar, 2000)


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