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2010/1 Module Catalogue
Module Provider: Civil, Chemical & Enviromental Eng Short Name: SE1M54
Level: M Module Co-ordinator: RAFIQ MI Dr (C, C & E Eng)
Number of credits: 15 Number of ECTS credits: 7.5
Module Availability

Semester 1

Assessment Pattern

Unit(s) of Assessment





Weighting Towards Module Mark (%)


2 hour examination










Coursework – Bridge analysis assignment










Qualifying Condition(s) 





An overall mark of 50% is required to pass the module.









Module Overview
Knowledge of Structural Engineering to Level HE3
Module Aims

(i)     To promote an understanding of the type and behaviour of actions, pertinent to bridge structures, and methods to quantify these for the analysis of bridges.




(ii) To promote an understanding of the methods of analysis used to    determine the displacements, action effects and stress resultants in a range of bridge superstructures.

Learning Outcomes

On completion of the module the student should be:


(i)     able to demonstrate a sound knowledge and understanding of various bridge loads and the development of their models for current design codes.


(ii)   able to identify and select suitable actions, and their combinations, for different bridge types and locations.


(iii)  able to quantify, and appropriately apply, the actions on bridges to obtain most unfavourable action effects using guidance from the current codes and standards.


(iv)   able to demonstrate understanding of various hand and computer based modelling and analysis methods through their appropriate application on bridge structures.


(v)    able to utilise understanding of bridge behaviour to evaluate global performance of bridges, and compute most unfavourable action effects on various elements of the bridge, using both global and local modelling and analysis.


(vi)   able to validate the models through simple checks, engineering judgement and verify the results through simple hand based calculation methods.





Module Content








Type of loads. Primary and secondary traffic loads for highway, railway and foot bridges. Wind and water loads. Temperature and Shrinkage loads. Application of the loads. Load combinations. Partial safety factors for each load, and various serviceability and ultimate limit states.




















Types of bridge decks and their behaviour. Analysis for square and skew decks, and integral bridges. Load distribution methods. Use of Influence lines and hand based analysis methods for analysis. Global analysis using grillage and finite element methods. Local analysis using influence surfaces.




















Examples of load applications to British standards (BD 37/01 and BS5400: Part 2) and Euro codes (BS EN 1991); Analysis of Bridge decks using various hand based, and computer based methods through tutorial sessions, and self, peer and formative assessments.













Practical Content: 
Use of computer software packages to analyse bridge decks.

Methods of Teaching/Learning

30 hrs teacher contact time (including 10 hours of tutorials), 40 hrs of assignment work (includes 2 peer assessments and a formative assessment), 80 hrs independent learning/self assessment questions.













Total student learning time 150 hours.





Selected Texts/Journals

Essential Reading



1.      BS EN 1991, Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures, British Standards Institution, London .

2.      BS EN 1990, Eurocode: Basis of structural Design, British Standards institution, London

3.      Hambly, E. C. (1992), “Bridge Deck Behaviour”, Second Edition E & F N Spon.



Required Reading



4.      O’Brien, EJ and Keogh, D.L. (1999), “Bridge Deck Analysis”, SPON Press, London .

5.      Calgaro, JA; Tschumi, M and Gulvanessian, H. (2010). Designers' Guide to Eurocode 1: Actions on bridges, Thomas Telford Ltd.

6.      Gulvanessian, H. Calgaro, J.A. and Holicky, M. (2002). Designers’ Guide to EN 1990: Eurocode: Basis of structural design. Thomas Telford Ltd.

7.      BD 37 (2001), “Loads for highway bridges”, Design Manual for Roads and Bridges, vol. 1, sec. 3, part 14, Highways Agency, London .

8.      BS 5400 (2006), “Steel, concrete and composite bridges. Part 2: Specification for Loads”, Composite version included in BD37/01, British Standards Institution, London .

All HA standards are available at website



Recommended background reading



9.      Dawe, P. (2003), “Research Perspective: Traffic loading on highway bridges”, Thomas Telford and TRL, 0-7277-3241-2.

10.  Connor, C.O. & Shaw, P. (2000), “Bridge loads”, SPON Press London, 0-419-24600-2.

11.  Parke, G.A.R. and Hewson (2008), “ICE Manual of Bridge Engineering”, Thomas Telford, .

12.  Bakht, B. and Jaeger, L. G. (1985), “Bridge Analysis Simplified”, McGraw-Hill,     New York .

13.  Dyrbye, C. and Hansen, S.O. (1996), “Wind Loads on Bridges”, Wiley, 1996.



Other suggested reading



14.  American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (1977),           “Standard specification for highway bridges”, AASHTO, Washington, D C.

15.  Bailey, S & Bez, R (1996), “Considering actual traffic during bridge evaluation”, Proc. Third International Conference on Bridge Management, pp 795-802, Thomas Telford.

16.  Bez, R & Hirt, M A (1991), “Prabability-based load models of Highway Bridges”, Structural Engineering International, IABSE, Vol.2, pp 37-42.

17.  BS 153 (1954), “Girder Bridges. Part 3A: Loads.” British Standards Institution, London .

18.  BE 1/77 (1961), “Technical Memorandum (Bridges):

Standard Highway



19.  Cambridge (1975), “ Highway Bridge Loading”, Report on the Proceedings of a Colloquium, April 7-10th.

20.  Cooper, D I (1997), “Development of short span bridge-specific assessment live loading”, Safety of Bridges, pp64-89, Ed. Das P C, Highways Agency, London .

21.  Henderson, W (1954), “British Highway Bridge Loading”, Proc. Inst of Civil Engineers, Part 11, Vol.3, pp325-373.

22.  Ministry of Transportation and Communications (1983), “Ontario highway bridge design code (OHBDC)”, Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Downsview, Ontario .

23.  MOT Memo No.577 (1931), “Bridge Design and Construction – Loading”.

24.  Page J (1997), “Traffic data for highway bridge loading rules”, Safety of Bridges, pp 90-98, Ed. Das P C, Highways Agency, London

25.  Rose, A. C. (1952-53), “Public Roads of the Past”, 2 vol.

26.  Vrouwenvelder, A C W M & Waarts, P H (1993), “Traffic loads on bridges”, Structural Engineering International, IABSE, Vol.3, pp 169-177.

27.  Ghali, A. and Neville, A.M. (1977), “Structural Analysis”, Chapman and Hall, London .

28.  Coares, C. and Kong (1972), “Structural Analysis”, Nelson.

29.  Clarke, L.A. (1983), “Concrete bridge design to BS5400”, Construction Press, London .

30.  West, R. (1973), “The use of a grillage analogy for the analysis of slab and pseudo-slab bridges”, Research Report 21, Cement and Concrete Association.


Last Updated

6 August 2010