Introduction: Physical properties of soils; classification; compaction
Effective Stress: Definition and nature of effective stress; intuitive and analytical models; principle of effective stress; short-term and long-term cases
Pore-water pressure regimes: Hydrostatic, artesian and underdrained cases; effect of capillary rise
Stress distribution and immediate settlement: Boussinesq solution and derivatives; use of theory of elasticity; measurement and use of undrained modulus; computation of immediate settlement
Seepage: Darcy’s law; coefficient of permeability and factors affecting it; Laplace equation and various solutions; Dupuit approach; anisotropy, its causes and incorporation in solutions; the quick condition, seepage through earth dams, top flow line
Shear strength: Nature of shear strength; drained and undrained shear strength; loose, dense and critical states; contraction and dilation; influence of volume change and generation of pore-water pressure; shear box apparatus; triaxial apparatus, Mohr’s circle, stress paths; residual strength, ring shear apparatus; field methods, plate bearing test, shear vane; factors affecting measured values of shear strength
Compressibility and consolidation: Compressibility characteristics of normally- and over-consolidated soils; classical theory of one-dimensional consolidation; pore-water pressure isochrones; secondary effects
Earth pressure: Types of earth-retaining structure, coefficients of earth pressure - active, passive and at rest; Rankine theory; Coulomb wedge analysis; short-term and long term problems; design of gravity walls, anchored walls and strutted excavations
Sustainability of cement and concrete products including resource base, life-cycle assessment, maintanence and eventual end-of-life options, e,g, recycling.
Health and Safety aspects of working with cement and cement-based material, COSHH requirements, PPE and safe working practice.
Properties of, and compliance tests for cement, aggregate and fresh concrete.
Destructive and non-destructive tests on hardened concrete.
Specification requirements and methods of mix design.
Statistical control procedures and quality control,
The history, manufacture and chemical composition of modern cements and admixtures
Dimensional changes in concrete structures.
Durability of plain and reinforced concrete.