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2010/1 Module Catalogue
 Module Code: ENG2072 Module Title: FLUID MECHANICS 2 (CHEMICAL)
Module Provider: Civil, Chemical & Enviromental Eng Short Name: ENG2072
Level: HE2 Module Co-ordinator: THORPE RB Prof (C, C & E Eng)
Number of credits: 10 Number of ECTS credits: 5
Module Availability
Year long
Assessment Pattern

Unit(s) of Assessment



Weighting Towards Module Mark (%)



Unseen examination






Coursework Semester 1






Coursework Semester 2






Qualifying Condition(s)



An overall mark of 40% is required to pass the module.



Module Overview

Material in fluid mechanics common to Civil, MMA and Chemical Engineering is delivered in the 1st Semester.



Internal flows in pipes and through pumps considering effects of fluid friction, momentum and energy losses in fittings. A range of pumps will be described and how they can be matched to system requirements. This will include non-dimensional analysis methods, laminar and turbulent flows and pipe system analysis.



The Chemical Engineering specific material is delivered in the 2nd semester. 



The main part of the syllabus concentrates on developing the student’s understanding of internal flows to the effects exhibited by gases when they change density due to pressure and temperature changes in the flow.  In addition the description of velocity profiles in pipes is taken to the next level (UVP) and the issues of drag and terminal velocity of particles is tackled.


Completion of the progress requirements of Level HE1.  Completion of ENG1006 or equivalent.

Module Aims

To give the students a further and deeper understanding of chemical engineering fluid flows.



Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of the module, you will  be able to:



  • explain the origin of momentum forces in flowing systems and be able to evaluate forces and energy losses


  • describe the parabolic velocity profile in a pipe in viscous flow and the shape of the velocity profile in turbulent flow


  • explain the technique of dimensional analysis and be able to apply Buckingham’s Pi Theorem to engineering situations


  • describe several kinds of pump and how they work


  • design, or evaluate the performance of, pump and pipework systems


  • explain the physics behind turbulent flow in a pipe and how that affects the velocity profile, the fluid friction at a pipe wall


  • recognise the differences between compressible and incompressible fluid flows


  • relate the concepts of isothermal and adiabatic flows and calculate the size of such flows


  • identify flow patterns in horizontal and vertical two-phase flows and calculate pressure drop for horizontal two-phase flows


  • calculate the terminal velocity of a particle falling under gravity through a fluid


Module Content

Dr Alan Packwood (7 lectures)


Momentum equation


·         Impact of jets


·         Force on a pipe bend


·         Force on an orifice plate


·         Energy loss in a sudden expansion


Viscous (laminar flow)


  • Poiseuille flow in a pipe


Dimensional analysis


Buckingham’s P theorem


  • Poiseuille flow written in dimensionless form


Scale models (Re, Fr, Ma)


  • Examples of empirical use (e.g. Cf vs Re and CD vs Re)


Professor Rex Thorpe (78 lectures)


·         Turbulent flow


·         Film model and 1/7th power law for time averaged flow in pipes


·         Friction factors and pressure gradients in pipes (effect of roughness; Moody chart)


·         Hydrodynamic resistance of sudden expansions, valves, bends, tees etc.


·         Discussion of flat plates, including variation of shear stress with distance from leading edge. No discussion of integral-momentum equation


·         Pumps and turbines


·         Types of pump and turbine


·         Head/flow rate characteristics (esp. centrifugal pumps)


·         Pumps in series (includes mention of NPSH) and parallel


·         Dimensional analysis of pumps (but not vector analysis)


·         Pump and pipe-work calculations


·         Balancing pumps against hydrodynamic resistances (but not pipe networks or multi-reservoir problems).


·         Introduction to boundary layers on a flat plate




Professor RB Thorpe (14 lectures)


1   Turbulent flow in a pipe


·         Revision of 1/7th power law


·         The universal velocity profile.


·         Eddy viscosity and its link to eddy diffusivity


·         Mixing of fluids


2   Two phase gas-liquid flow in pipes


·         Flow pattern maps in horizontal and vertical flow


·         Pressure differences (incl. Method of Lockhart and Martinelli)


3   Equipment for pumping gases


·         Types and their characteristics


·         Reminder of inter-cooling


·         Surge and recycle


4   Compressible flow of gases


·         Reminder of basic equations (Continuity, Ideal gas law, adiabatic equations, steady flow energy equations)


·         Isothermal compressible flow in pipelines (density changes, speed of sound, choking)


·         Isentropic compressible flow through valves (density changes, speed of sound, choking, existence of shock waves). How to predict whether a valve is choked. Calculation of relief valve capacity


·         When is a flow likely to be isothermal or isentropic? Mention of polytropic flows.


·         Brief discussion of convergent-divergent nozzles.




5 Terminal velocity


·         Drag coefficients for a sphere


·         Force balance for a sphere in free fall


·         Equations for terminal velocity


6        Non-Newtonian Fluids including Colloids


·         Types of non-Newtonian behaviour


·         Van der Waals’ forces and colloidal rheology


·         Stabilisation and electrical double layer


Methods of Teaching/Learning

1st. Semester:


14 hours of lectures,


5 hours of tutorial sessions


2 coursework multiple choice tests (1/2 hour each)


6 hours of work on marked exercise


21 hours of independent learning and examination preparation.



2nd. Semester: 


12 hours of lectures


6 tutorials (including 1 coursework multiple choice test)


12 hours on marked exercises (2)


19 hours of independent learning and examination preparation.



2 hour written exam




Total student learning time 100 hours.


Selected Texts/Journals

Essential Reading



Required Reading


Coulson JM and Richardson JF, Chemical Engineering, Volume 1, 3rd ed, Pergamon, 1977. (ISBN 00802 0614X)


Douglas JF, Gasiorek JM and Swaffield JA, Fluid Mechanics, 4th ed, Prentice Hall, 2001. (ISBN 05824 14768)


Massey, B,  Mechanics of Fluids, 8th ed, Taylor & Francis, 2006. (ISBN 0-415-36206)


Williams, R, Shaw, D, and Biggs, M  Introduction to Colloid and Surface Chemistry, 5th edn,, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007.  (ISBN 0750684712)



Recommended Reading



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