Section 1 - INTERACTIONS, SENSORS & PLATFORMS
Introduction to Remote Sensing: Radiometry, Electromagnetic Spectrum, Radiant and Spectral quantities, Blackbodies, Planck law, Stefan-Boltzmann law, Wien displacement law.
Energy Interactions: Physics of interactions, interactions in the atmosphere (influence factors, mechanisms, effects), interactions at the Earth’s surface (the energy balance, different kinds of reflectors). Mechanisms of reflection, transmission, absorbance, scattering (Rayleigh, Mie, Non-selective).
Data acquisition and interpretation: Data acquisition, data analysis, reference data, calibration.
Sensors and Platforms: Active and Passive systems, Spatial Resolution, Spectral Resolution, Swath Width, Coverage (Along-track scanner, Across-track scanner), Nadir, Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), Payload design (Factors and Limitations), Orbits (Apogee and Perigee, Eccentricity, Orbital Period and Speed, Ascending and Descending Node, Inclination, Shape and Altitude, Geostationary Earth Orbits, Sun-Synchronous Orbits). Examples of some missions: LANDSAT program, SPOT program, NOAA program.
Section 2 - RADAR REMOTE SENSING
Radar Remote Sensing: Viewing geometry, Antenna Beam. Signal properties in Time Domain (Continuous wave CW and Pulsed wave PW) and Frequency domains, (Spectrum for CW and PW). Linear Frequency Modulation. Range and Doppler discrimination. Geometric distortions (Foreshortening, Layover, Shadow). Real Aperture Radar (RAR), Radar Equation (Bistatic and Monostatic), Swath width, Range resolution, Azimuth resolution, Signal Fading (speckle).
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR): Synthetic-Array approach, Doppler-Synthesis approach, lower and upper bounds for PRF. Configurations: stripmap, spotlight, hybrid, scansar. SAR Missions and Applications. Interferometry SAR. Scatterometer: basic principles. Altimeter: basic principles.
Section 3 - DATA QUALITY & IMAGE PROCESSING
Image Processing and GIS: Image rectification and restoration (Geometric correction, Radiometric correction, Noise removal); Image enhancement (Contrast manipulation, Spatial feature manipulation, Multi-image manipulation). Image classification (supervised and unsupervised), classifiers. Data merging: principles. Geographic Information System (GIS): definitions, concept of Geographical Data, Geometrical Data, Attribute Data, definition of map, organization of information in a map, applications