POWER AND THERMAL CONTROL SYSTEMS (AE) (10 hours)
[1-2] Heat Transfer in Space: basic processes - conduction, convection, radiation;
insolation, albedo, Earth-emission; radiation heat transfer: black bodies, the Planck curve, Wein's law, Stefan's law, emissivity, absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity; Kirchhoff's law, grey-body assumptions; simple computation of the temperature of a spherical planet; view-factors, reciprosity.
 Thermal Model of a Satellite: temperature balance equation; lumped component
analysis - FDM, FEM; thermal vacuum testing.
 Thermal Control: passive control, a/e values, paints, metals, SSMs, MLI blankets,
space suits; active control: thermal louvres, heaters, heat pipes, VCHPs.
[5-6] Power Generation: principle and model of a solar cell (GaAs, Si, InP); construction,
role of coverglasses; I-V characteristics, Voc, Isc and maximum power point; effects of temperature and exposure to radiation; solar arrays, "spinner" and "paddle" configuration, layout and diode protection; alternative power sources: fuel cells, RTGs, nuclear power plants.
 Power Storage: primary and secondary cells (NiCd, NiH2, NiMH, Li-Ion) -
characteristics and construction, charge-discharge cycles, temperature range, charging methods.
[8-9] Power Control and Distribution: regulators - BCR, BDR and shunt regulators; DC-
DC converters, linear regulators, switching regulators - buck, boost and inverting; switches, current limiters and protection devices.
 Power System Design: topologies, maximum power point tracking, direct energy
transfer, regulated and un-regulated busses; power budgets, BOL, EOL calculations, lighting conditions and seasonal variations.
TT&C, COMMUNICATIONS AND DATA SYSTEMS (TVV) (10 hours)
[11-13] Communications Link: TT&C frequencies, Doppler curve - AOS, LOS TCA;
link design: carrier-to-noise ratio, Eb/No, signal quality.
[14-16] Telemetry and Telecommand Systems Design function of TT&C system; launch and early operation phase (LEOP), end-of-life operations; tracking methods, ranging; telemetry systems, formatting and synchronisation; command systems, validation and authorisation; packet systems, CCSDS;
[17-19] On-Board Computers: hardware design issues; software design issues; effect of ionising radiation - SEEs and total dose damage; example systems.
 Ground-Segment: ground-station design - Mission Operations Control Centre (MOCC); ground-support equipment; use at AIT and LEOP; orbit determination. Tour of Surrey’s MOCC.
STRUCTURES, MECHANISMS, AOCS & AIT (VL) (10 hours)
[21-23] Structures and Mechanisms: mechanical design and environment; structural requirements stress, strain, resonance and vibration; materials selection: vacuum/ microgravity effects, outgassing; materials compatibility; strength-to-weight ratio; tribology.
[24-27] Attitude & Orbit Control Systems: Attitude determination sensors: sun sensors, Earth horizon sensors, magnetometers, star sensors. Attitude control systems: magnetorquers, reaction wheels, momentum wheels, CMGs, thrusters. Orbit control systems: choice of propellant; liquid engines, solid motors; hybrid engines; arc-jets, resistojets, ion-thrusters.
[28-30] Manufacture and AIT: PA/QA, reliability issues; manufacture process; testing:
mechanical properties (MoI, CoG); vibration and acoustic testing, EMC test; thermal vacuum test; solar simulation; launch campaign.