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2010/1 Module Catalogue
Module Provider: Computing Short Name: CSM28
Level: M Module Co-ordinator: HO AT Prof (Computing)
Number of credits: 15 Number of ECTS credits: 7.5
Module Availability
Spring Semester
Assessment Pattern

Unit(s) of Assessment

Weighting Towards Module Mark( %)

Closed-book written examination (2 hours)



Coursework (Project) – Assessment based on group presentation (20%) and individual project report (80%)


Qualifying Condition(s) 

A weighted aggregate mark of 50% is required to pass the module

Module Overview

The tremendous growth and wide usage of multimedia content such as audio, image and video data has led to the increasing need for copyright protection and authentication of multimedia content. Copyright protection and the proof of ownership of multimedia content have attracted a great deal of attention during the early days of digital watermarking. However, in recent years, watermarking for authentication of images has attracted interest, not just from academia, but also from many government and industry sectors. For example, there are many image editing tools readily available nowadays and even the basic ones can be used to modify digital images (colour, greyscale and binary) with relative ease.

As such, the authenticity of digital images is becoming a major concern especially if the images were to be used for evidence in courts such as those used for law enforcement applications. For example, at crime scenes where images such as fingerprints are captured and sent digitally back to the Police database for further analysis can be first watermarked and then later verified to ensure their authenticity. Other important authentication applications include traffic enforcement and passport verification. This module will provide a comprehensive background to various digital watermarking and authentication technologies currently used in different applications for multimedia content and documents.
COMM023– Introduction to Multimedia Security
Module Aims
The main aim of this module is to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge on the theoretical background and practical applications relating to digital watermarking and authentication techniques for multimedia content and documents. The module will equip students with a critical awareness of conventional and non-conventional orthogonal transform watermarking techniques for different applications including robust watermarking for copyright protection, fragile and semi-fragile watermarking for authentication, unintentional and intentional or malicious attacks, as well as advanced recovery techniques to restore watermarked. Through laboratory sessions, students will be able to apply their theoretical understanding in developing and evaluating a digital watermarking system prototype for image authentication and restoration.
Learning Outcomes

By the end of the module, students should be able to:

  • Contrast the differences between robust, fragile and semi-fragile watermarking
  • Demonstrate a systematic understanding of perceptual modelling, watermark embedding and detection methods
  • Describe and account for the different types of non-intentional and intentional attacks, print and scan processes
  • Demonstrate a critically awareness of the use of benchmarking tools such as Stirmark and Checkmark in determining the performance of watermark algorithms
  • Critically evaluate digital watermarking applications for image, audio and video data
Demonstrate a critically awareness of digital watermarking systems for copyright protection and authentication applications
Module Content

The module is divided into the following areas:

  • Introduction to digital watermarking
  • Models of watermarking
  • Watermark classes
  • Perceptual modelling
  • Print-and-scan processes
  • Watermark attacks and tampering
  • Binary image watermarking
  • Watermark authentication and recovery
  • Audio watermarking (MP3 and WAV)
  • Video watermarking (MPEG and H.264L)
Watermarking and authentication applications
Methods of Teaching/Learning

30 contact hours in weeks 1-10, consisting of:

  • 20 hours of lecture and example classes
10 hours of lab sessions
Selected Texts/Journals
Essential Reading:

Cox, I.J., Miller, M.L., Bloom, J.A. (2002), Digital Watermarking, Morgan Kaufmann Series in Multimedia Information and Systems, ISBN: 1-55860-714-5

Recommended Reading:

Katzenbeisser, S., Petitcolas, F. (1999), Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking, Artech House, ISBN: 1-58053-035-4


Johnson, N., Duric, Z., Jajodia, S. (2001), Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking - Attacks and Countermeasures, Springer, ISBN: 0792372042

Supplementary Reading:

Barni, M., Bartolini, F. (2004), Watermarking Systems Engineering: Enabling Digital Assets Security and Other Applications, Dekker, ISBN: 0824748069

Watermarking World:
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